Almost everyone experiences social anxiety on occasion, but for some, it’s a disorder that manifests itself as an extreme fear—one that can be a hindrance to overall happiness. There’s a difference between feeling nervous in a crowd and having social anxiety disorder. For some students, the idea of meeting new people and communicating in a discussion forum can be paralyzing.
“If someone feels uncomfortable in new situations, or takes time to ‘warm up,’ or just prefers small groups, that’s not social anxiety disorder,” says Dr. Eli Lebowitz, assistant professor for the anxiety disorders program at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. “Social anxiety disorder is more than occasional shyness or social discomfort.”
Anxiety is sometimes diagnosed as a phobia, but only when it really puts a damper on your life, every day (or almost), even in situations that most people wouldn’t be uncomfortable in.
“For those with social anxiety disorder, there will be many situations they avoid: conversations with other people, eating or drinking in public, answering the phone, or speaking in class,” says Dr. Lebowitz. “Also, a disorder will only be diagnosed if the condition has lasted for at least six months.”
Students may be dealing with severe social anxiety if they:
- Become emotional (crying, irritable, or angry) when discussing a new social situation.
- Rarely attend social events, or say they will attend and consistently don’t.
- Speak in a very low voice and avoid eye contact during conversation.
- Express low self-esteem or consistently voice fears about being unattractive, boring, embarrassing, or unintelligent.
- Have had these symptoms for longer than six months.
Here’s what you can do to help:
Make anxiety an accessible topic
Destigmatize the topic by talking about mental health, self-care, and available resources before a disclosure is ever made. By building this into your class, maybe in your own introduction or in an early faculty announcement, you make room for students to talk about their experience and get support. You can also make a referral to the Office of Student Access and Wellness if severity is such that a diagnosis is present. This will ensure your student’s awareness of academic accommodations and related services.
Educate students on the difference between normal anxiety and anxiety that’s become problematic.
When it’s the latter, make sure students know how they can get support through community resources. If interested in assistance identifying resources, offer to connect your student with a Student Advocate and email [email protected] with the details you have.
Include instructions or references to self care strategies such as deep breathing exercises.
Deep abdominal breathing (vs. shallow chest breathing) can help alleviate anxiety, says Mary K. Alvord, a psychologist in Rockville, Maryland.
Encourage exploring meditation or mindfulness courses offered in their local community.
“Anxiety causes people to get lost in their heads, worrying about what others think about them,” says Holly Rogers, a psychiatrist at Duke University and founder of the Center for Koru Mindfulness in Durham, North Carolina. “Mindfulness teaches you to keep your attention focused on each moment, carefully listening to what others are saying or keeping your mind on whatever task you are completing. It helps you to stay present in your body, feeling your breath and staying calmly anchored, rather than having your mind run off generating worries.”
Provide resources for students to find local therapy options outside of school.
You can also email the HELPline a [email protected] edu and a Student Advocate will contact your student directly to offer assistance.
Mary K. Alvord, PhD, psychologist and director of Alvord, Baker & Associates; author of Resilience Builder Program for Children and Adolescents, Rockville, Maryland.
Eli Lebowitz, PhD, assistant professor for the Yale Child Study Center’s anxiety disorders program, New Haven, Connecticut.
Laura Offutt, MD, internal medicine physician, author, founder of Real Talk with Dr. Offutt, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holly Rogers, MD, psychiatrist at Duke University and founder of the Center for Koru Mindfulness in Durham, North Carolina.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America. (2015). Understand the facts: Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved from http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Goldin, P. R., Ziv, M., Jazaieri, H., Hahn, K., et al. (2013). Impact of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder on the neural dynamics of cognitive reappraisal of negative self-beliefs: Randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(10), 1048–1056. Retrieved from http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1727438
Harvard Medical School. (2015). Relaxation techniques: Breath control helps quell errant stress response. Harvard Family Health Guide. Retrieved from http://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/relaxation-techniques-breath-control-helps-quell-errant-stress-response
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). (2013). Social anxiety disorder: Recognition, assessment and treatment. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2017, November). Prevalence of anxiety disorder among adults. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/any-anxiety-disorder.shtml#part_155096
National Institute of Mental Health. (2013). Social phobia (social anxiety disorder): Always embarrassed. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/social-phobia-social-anxiety-disorder-always-embarrassed/index.shtml
Scott, E. (2018, December 14). Journaling is a great tool for coping with anxiety. VeryWell Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/journaling-a-great-tool-for-coping-with-anxiety-3144672
April 2019 Student Health 101 higher education survey.